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The most numerous of the groups is the South , who form the majority of the population in Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia, North Macedonia, and Montenegro. The southern and coastal areas, however, have a Mediterranean type of climate, with hot, dry summers and mild, relatively rainy winters. The mountains have a significant impact on the climate of the peninsula. They intermingled with the and gave them the and cults, which later became so important in classical. Among these ranges extensive areas of good arable land are relatively scarce, though the valleys of the Danube, , and rivers, eastern Bulgaria, parts of the Aegean Sea coast, and especially the Danubian Plain are exceptions.

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balkanja

An Illyrian kingdom based in modern-day , Albania, remained an important factor until its liquidation by Roman armies in 168 bce. After this war the viability of the relatively new Balkan states was threatened by political instability, ethnic division, worldwide economic depression, and the rise of the states of and Italy. These include the fluidity of ethnic groups, the inability of the peoples of the region to agree and cooperate among themselves, a tendency on the part of political authority to devolve to local levels as soon as central power is weakened, the influence of foreign powers, and the difficulty of introducing into the area concepts that have evolved in a different political and social. More often than not, Slovenia is included as a member of the Balkans because of its long historical ties with its neighbours to the southeast and because of its former incorporation in the and federal. The Balkans are usually characterized as , , , , , , , , , and —with all or part of each of those countries located within the peninsula.

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Some define the region in cultural and historical terms and others geographically, though there are even different interpretations among historians and geographers. Thereafter the Illyrians were known mainly as who disturbed the trade of many Greek settlements on the Adriatic coast. This article covers the history of the region as first defined above from antiquity to the early 21st century. For discussion of physical and human geography, along with the history of individual countries in the region, see , , , ,, , North Macedonia, , , , , , and. Increasingly in the early 21st century, another pair of definitional terms has gained currency: South East also styled South-East, Southeast, South-Eastern, or Southeastern Europe, which has been employed to describe the region in broad terms though, again, without universal agreement on its component states and the Western Balkans, which are usually said to Albania, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, North Macedonia, and Serbia. At the dawn of recorded history, two Indo-European peoples dominated the area: the to the west and the to the east of the great historical divide defined by the Morava and Vardar river valleys.

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The Bulgarians, North Macedonians, and Slovenes speak their own , while the Slavs of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro all speak of. Thracian society was tribal in structure, with little inclination toward political cohesion. . At times the peninsula has been divided along north-south lines, and at other times the divisions have been east-west; what the Balkans has varied with time as have the forces operating within the area. Witness the juxtaposition of archaic and modern lifestyle practices in the Balkan countries In Balkan Europe, living is a constant amalgam of the new world and the old, leading most Balkanites to religion as a hope for a better future.

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Explore the Balkans' natural resources and agriculture, mountainous interior, and rich cultural diversity An introduction to the Balkan Peninsula. Illyrian society, like that of the Thracians, was organized around tribal groups who often fought wars with one another and with outsiders. In what was to become a persistent phenomenon in Balkan history, unity was brought about mostly by external pressure. Greece, because its northern regions of Epirus and Macedonia are often considered parts of the Balkans, also appears on many lists of Balkan states, but it is arguably better characterized as primarily a country. The Illyrians, ethnically akin to the Thracians, originally inhabited a large area from the Istrian peninsula to northern Greece and as far inland as the Morava River. Area 257,400 square miles 666,700 square km.

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The Persian invasions of the 6th and 5th centuries bce brought the Thracian tribes together in the Odrysian kingdom, which fell under Macedonian influence in the 4th century bce. Subjection to Eastern imperial forces isolated most Balkan societies from Western developments for almost two millennia and created feudal characteristics that persisted until. The lie east-west across Bulgaria, the extend along the Greek-Bulgarian border, and the extends down the Adriatic coast to Albania. At no point in history has it been easy to define the Balkans in any other than geographic terms and, again, even that approach can be problematic. Under the Celtic threat they established a political entity, but this too was destroyed by Macedonia.

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In the north, clear geographic delimitation of the Balkans becomes difficult because the Pannonian Basin of the Great Hungarian Plain extends from central Europe into parts of Croatia, Serbia, and Romania. The Illyrians were more , their mountainous terrain keeping them separate from the Greeks and Thracians. The Balkans are washed by the in the west, the in the southwest, and the in the east. After , communism brought greater political stability to the Balkans—but at the cost of individual freedom, social and economic problems connected with rapid industrialization, and varying degrees of dominance by yet another outside power, the Soviet Union. The Thracians were advanced in metalworking and in horsemanship. Generally, the Balkans are bordered on the northwest by , on the north by , on the north and northeast by Moldova and , and on the south by Greece and Turkey or the depending on how the region is defined.

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During the 4th century bce they were pushed southward by invasions, and thereafter their territory did not extend much farther north than the Drin River. There are, however, some features of Balkan history that have remained consistent. Antiquity Illyrians and Thracians Archaeological evidence indicates that the Balkans were populated well before the New Stone Age; about 10,000 years ago. The northern and central parts of the Balkans have a central European climate, characterized by cold winters, warm summers, and well-distributed rainfall. The Romans were also affected and took , annexing much of Illyrian territory in the early 3rd century bce.

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